Tonga has a history of volcanic events, recorded from 1839. There is an active volcano on the island of Niuafo'ou. Due to Tonga's location along the subduction zone, the islands are exposed to the risk of volcanic eruptions. Tonga has 18 reported volcanos throughtout its wider region. 11 of Tonga's 18 active volcanos are under water and are reported to pose little threat to human life and infrastructure.
Tonga witnessed a historical and violent eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai (HTHH) undersea volcano on the 15th January 2022 which generated a powerful tsunami with the waves reportedly up to 10 meters high and battered the low-lying coastal areas of Ha’apai, ‘Eua and Tongatapu resulting in 4 deaths and a devastating impact on our lands, houses, communities and our people. The Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha'apai volcanic eruption, tsunami and ashfall in 2022 affected more than 85,000 people across the country. Tongatapu, ‘Eua and the Ha’apai group experienced major disruptions to water supplies as the water was contaminated with ashfall. The agricultural sector has been greatly impacted during this disaster, where around 85% of the agricultural households throughout Tonga was affected to some extent.
Tonga Geological Services, Tonga Met. Services and NEMO monitoring HTHH activity prior to 15/02/2022